Which empire represented a continuation of Roman imperial rule and tradition? The lesser struggle, the struggle of the sword, is the fight to protect the community from external threats. You will need to develop a thesis that responds to the prompt, and support that thesis with evidence from both the documents and your knowledge of world history. Timbuktu Questions for Review: What is a tropical environment? The majority religion in most Islamic countries. Spread with Muhammad's power and new Arab alliances with Muhammad. Do you have to rule violently? How did the Mongols integrate different cultural and intellectual traditions? Sufi: These mystics did not believe that it was necessary to follow the letter of the law.
Include various economic, gender, and social groups in your answer. You can visit the for exam information and exam practice. Thus a number of schools developed to interpret and administer the law. A number of Greek and Arabic books were collected and translated in the libraries. Sometimes Sufism was very similar to Hindu traditions. Conversion without Arabization: Persia, Turks, and Pakistan: While in North Africa and much of Mesopotamia, people converted and adopted the Arabic language and culture, areas east of the Tigris-Euphrates did not. Include a discussion of slavery in your response.
Many of these restrictions, such as veiling and sequestering, were in keeping with earlier pre-Islamic practices in this part of the world, and most were difficult and impractical to apply to lower class women. It was a slow spread, peaceful and voluntary, without invading armies. Women in the Quran, Hadith, and Sharia: During the time of the revelations, Muhammad created rules that protected women and gave them some control over their property and right to divorce. Women couldn't take multiple husbands as before, but men could take up to 4 wives. A variety of people from the Christian and Persian worlds lived in the cities of the peninsula.
Arab and Berber invasion of Al-Andalus: In 711, Muslim Arab and Berber forces invaded Spain, called Al-Andalus in Arabic. Spiritual versus social conversion: While there were obviously many people drawn to Islam for spiritual or psychological reasons, there were also large numbers that went through a social conversion, meaning that they shifted from one community to another. Sufi Shaykphs, or teachers, also attracted groups of disciples to teach their devotional techniques. Muslim merchants were prominent and dominant players in the world's trade routes. Why has this system been able to withstand time? What was the Renaissance, and what were some of its most important and lasting cultural and artistic achievements? They believed in a variety of Gods, with Allah being the main head god. This caused the split of Sunni and Shia Muslims.
Controlled by Quarash tribe who collected taxes on traveling pilgrims. Discuss the importance of Islamic conversion in Africa and Asia as a unifying factor. Changed prayer direction from Jerusalem to Mecca. During the second Caliph, Umar, said women must pray at home. They served as judges, interpreters, administrators, prayer leaders, and reciters of the Quran, and uphold Sharia Law. Deeply troubled by religious corruption and inequalities in Mecca.
Never could convert because of fundamental differences between Islam and Hinduism see below. They are a more mystical branch of Islam. Did Korea adapt and shape the Eurasian knowledge imported by the Mongols? Also had rise of Sufis, a more mystical version of Islam. With the establishment of the Sultan of Delhi in 1206, their rule was more systematic but still relatively limited in its reach. They were effective because their mystical and devotional techniques often more closely resembled the religious practices of conquered peoples. Explain what brought about the schism and how it represented nationalistic urges. He was also the first ruler in the Timurid dynasty.
I Chapter 9: Key Terms: 1. Rather through meditation or ritual, one could have a close spiritual contact with the Divine. Increased intolerance: In the late 900s as Christian kingdoms in the north began a series of wars, the Muslims rulers became increasingly intolerant of Christians, and social conflicts developed between the communities. Arab Islam was distinctly Turkish, not arab. New weapons such as rockets and useful administrative tools such as paper spread west from China.
How was the technological explosion shared with people? What technologies made the trade network a success? How did the religious beliefs of the various civilizations shape their social organization? Monotheistic Islam forbade images of the divine and preached against overt sexuality while Hindu art was full of representations of thousands of gods and sometimes depicted very sensual and even erotic scenes. Hadiths - traditions about the sayings or actions of Muhammad, - presented women as weak and deficient - seen in adam and eve story. War, alliances, and entry into Mecca, 630: The Umma found itself in a series of conflicts with its neighbors. The Pilgrimage is done during July and August. The Quraysh dominated the city and grew wealthy from taxing the pilgrims that came to worship at the Kaaba. Chapter 11: Key Terms: 1. Describe a city near to where you live and compare it to Mesoamerican cities.
Women were more free than in Arab dominated areas. Persian influences on Islamic world: Persia, as a centuries-old empire and civilization, not only held on to its traditions, but many of them spread into the wider Muslim world. It was also a time of tolerance with special taxes for Jews and Christians but general acceptance of them in society. Sexual modesty of muslims differed from open eroticism of Hindu religious art. What were the major differences between the Maya and Toltec civilizations? Christians were forced to wear special clothes and pay taxes and were forbidden to ride horses or carry swords. He recited these revelations, and they were later recorded as the Quran, Islam's sacred text.
In what ways did they participate in actively shaping their environments? You can also download a. Only in Punjab and Sind regions northwest India and Bengal. Nonetheless, the communities in the cities saw themselves as part of a larger Islamic world. This new community of the faithful and the just would be known as the Umma. What were the important intellectual developments that Europe owed to Mongol influence? From the Iberian Peninsula to the Indus River: Muslim armies spread rapidly out of the Arabian Peninsula, conquering Spain and invading France in the west and reaching the Indus River in the east.