What were your first impressions of the main characters? The Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge , where Watson and Crick work, is headed by Sir Lawrence Bragg 1890-1971 , who shared a Nobel Prize in physics with his father in 1915 for their research in X-ray crystallography. He was a precocious student, and entered the University of Chicago when he was only 15. It just was bad chemistry, which sort of, prevented her from thinking clearly and being, perhaps, as creative as she might've been. They are already worried that the American chemist Linus Pauling 1901-1994 is closing in on a solution. It's very common in physics and many of the people involved in this work were physicists. They submerge their ego to the data and this is all that counts and theorists are little bit more like cowboys in a way, you know, they have ideas—is there, is somebody a theorist in the audience? That at least, and I am sure it was her view, too, or she would have behaved very differently. It presents a selection of both positive and negative reviews of the book, by such figures as , , , , and more in-depth analyses by , , and.
In the case of James D. I mean, it seemed to me that there was so much that that came from her that, you know, interfered with the scientific process. They did a lot of work, it might not have been data collection, it was library information collection and then arguing about what it meant to help figure out. And on the other hand, I think it was important for the play, and I thought that what it was really to me, what it was showing is that she was in a terrible environment for her. In 1958, Rosalind Franklin died at the early age of 37. Synopsis: from Michael Marx, Skidmore College The film opens in 1951, when the young American biologist James D. This production runs at the Ensemble Studio Theatre here in New York till November 21st.
Her data are acknowledged in Crick's paper, and again, in the second paper he published in Nature a month later. Ziegler: I needed a comic foil. What do you think was good about their methods? But she never, ever, complained about this. Take Notes While Viewing: This movie depicts two different philosophies of scientific discovery. It's a very good point because sometimes it's very hard to see that science is getting done. She claims that Watson's book did not give a balanced description of and the nature of her interactions with Maurice Wilkins at King's College, London. Crick was the most remarkable man I have ever met.
Elkin: laughter from the audience It is very, very difficult mathematics, doing Patterson; and what I did see at her archives were letters in response to her doing the first ever three-dimensional Patterson. Berman: This is like actually, in the kind of crystallography they were doing, and even in the kind of crystallography that we do—three-dimensional single-crystal crystallography—the dividing line between theory and experiment is not as clear as people would like to say. We'll pick it up with Wade's response to Elkin's rebuttal. Those scientists were James Watson, Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins, and Rosalind Franklin. In particular, it explores the tension between the patient, dedicated laboratory work of Franklin and the sometimes uninformed intuitive leaps of Watson and Crick, all played against a background of institutional turf wars, personality conflicts and sexism. Elkin: I am also a fan of Wilkins and Watson and Crick. Dna is short for deoxyribonucleic acid, which is a molecule that carries information into humans and all living organisms.
Burton Feldman A 1980 of The Double Helix edited by , analyzed the events surrounding its initial publication. That one paper was just so communicative and the other two were just simply not, they were just plain old science business and I think it's a lesson in how science ought to be done by scientists as well; that they should think carefully about their audience. Very interesting to see that. Even if it was originally hers, she got no credit by the scientific society. I don't know if it's in the new correspondence or older bit of correspondence, but he was actually quite glad that he had never seen the A data.
This autobiography gives insight into science and the workings within a professional research laboratory that few members of society will ever be able to experience. Berman: So I teach over the years I have coursed undergraduates, and I use the story of the double helix as a way of illustrating how science is done. So how did you figure that out? Although he did not win the race for the double helix, Linus Pauling won a Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1954 for his work on the nature of chemical bonding. Firestein: It's in the new one. People who she worked with at Berkeley.
Wade: She was definitely in a position to complain if she wished. It's just, you have no idea what's it's actually about unless you're a true expert, and I think that's at least part of the reason that things have come down historically the way they have. An alphabet of only four letters, A, T, G, C the initial letters of the names of the bases , produces enough variations in genetic information to account for the great diversity of all living things, including human beings. Francis Crick was a scientist graduate from University College, London, and Caius College, Cambridge. Wade: It's in the new ones actually.
So when you get a three-dimensional structure of a protein, you are modeling it. Do you want to see what's on their minds, briefly? Though an important book about an immensely important subject, it was and remains a controversial account. What methods did they use to accomplish this? Franklin does independent research and is doubted by others because of her gender, but Wilkins does not like this approach and is trying to get rid of her. At the end of part 1 New York Times science reporter Nicholas Wade had just been rebutted by biologist and Franklin scholar Lynne Osman Elkin. Scares me, really, believe me.
She was leaving the King's College department to go to Birkbeck College. After the war she joined the Laboratoire Centrale des Services Chimiques de l'Etat in Paris, where she was introduced to the technique of X-ray crystallography and became a respected scientist in this field. For Science Talk, the podcast of Scientific American, I'm Steve Mirsky. Rosalind Franklin had university degrees in chemistry, she got her undergraduate and graduate degrees from Cambridge University. I think dramatically he's a narrator and he's a sort of a comic foil, which is what the play needed.
Berman: So when I saw the play, I thought that the way in which Rosalind was portrayed was perhaps harsher than I thought. So I think it's very interesting. Watson, The Double Helix New York, 1968. Ziegler: I'm sure they do. And also to see how weak, false, even the first two or three were, before Wilkins got it to decimate it more compared to the draft they wrote about that first model, where they very, very clearly acknowledged Franklin. Maybe we'll take one or two questions. I think there's a quote from Crick.