In his possession a letter was found, written in cipher, addressed to Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots. They also contrast the imperial figure of the Virgin Queen wearing the large pearl symbolizing suspended from her and the carved on the chair of state, representing female wiles luring sailors to their doom, another interpretation is that the mermaid symbolizes Mary Queen of Scots. At this time, circa April 1588, the English failed to intercept the Spanish twice in Iberian waters due to storms McDermott 128. The English used the time bought by the raid on Cadiz to shore up their defenses and prepare for invasion. If he had been a better judge of human nature, he would have realized that the English people would never accept their Spanish foe as a ruler. Led by Drake and Lord Charles Howard, the Royal Navy assembled a fleet of some 40 warships and several dozen armed merchant vessels. The challenge from Spain came swiftly considering they had been planning for quite some time.
A day of fierce fighting between the two fleets followed, later called the Battle of the Gravelines. In the mean time, my lieutenant general 2 shall be in my stead, than whom never prince commanded a more noble or worthy subject; not doubting but by your obedience to my general, by your concord in the camp, and your valour in the field, we shall shortly have a famous victory over those enemies of my God, of my kingdom, and of my people. I know I have but the body of a weak and feeble woman; but I have the heart of a king, and of a king of England, too; and think foul scorn that Parma or Spain, or any prince of Europe, should dare to invade the borders of my realms: to which, rather than any dishonor should grow by me, I myself will take up arms; I myself will be your general, judge, and rewarder of every one of your virtues in the field. But when the Spanish launched the actual invasion, delivery from the threat seemed miraculously easy. Eventually, both England and Spain had had enough of the fighting and organized the peace treaty's signing almost 16 years after the initial start of the war. Both scenes show a fleet.
Tensions between Spain and England flared in the 1580s, after Elizabeth began allowing privateers such as Sir to conduct pirate raids on Spanish fleets carrying treasure from their New World colonies. In the course of this a further thirty-four or thirty-five ships, mostly weaker built transports, filled with water and sank or ran aground Spanish Armada Timeline, Internet. Intelligence and diplomacy Howard's appointment was key, as his aristocratic lineage gave him the authority to keep the huge egos under him, such as Drake, in check. On 8th February 1587, Mary was executed at Fotheringhay Castle, Elizabeth vehemently denied ordering the death even though she signed the warrant. The propaganda potential was considerable and the Armada portrait was no doubt commissioned in order to capitalise on this.
But the Spanish decided not to attack it, instead sailing east towards the Isle of Wight. If Queen Elizabeth ever felt nervous about challenging the greatest power in the known world, she never showed it, and appeared to believe completely in the devotion and loyalty of her people. I know I have the body but of a weak and feeble woman; but I have the heart and stomach of a king, and of a king of England too, and think foul scorn that Parma or Spain, or any prince of Europe, should dare to invade the borders of my realm; to which rather than any dishonour shall grow by me, I myself will take up arms, I myself will be your general, judge, and rewarder of every one of your virtues in the field. When the voyage that returned in 1580 brought a 100% return, doubling Elizabeth's investment, she held a massive feast aboard his ship, the Golden Hind, the following April, knighting him for his service. On the left, the English fleet rides high on tranquil and becalmed waters, basking in sunshine, whilst on the right the Spanish fleet are battered by ferocious high waves.
When no invasion of England came the nation rejoiced and a thanksgiving service was held at St Pauls Cathedral. Spain was the most powerful country in the world. She encouraged and partially financed him in his raiding of Spanish treasure ships, and rewarded him handsomely for his exploits. The Spanish Armada continued to advance during the next few days, but its ranks were thinned by the English assault. Right up until the attempted invasion by Philip, Elizabeth had continually tried to negotiate her way to peace. Howard and his fleet pursued them into the North Sea for three days until it became clear they were leaving.
In my research, I… contrast between two policies for their nation to handle these civil tensions were two powerful and influential Queens of this era; Elizabeth I of England, reigning from 1558-1603, and Isabella I of Castile, reigning from 1474-1504. Spanish ships that sailed away encountered foul weather and only a few ever returned to Spain. Along the journey back to Spain many bad storms wrecked the majority of the ships on the coasts of Scotland and Ireland so less than half of the ships returned to Spain. The enterprise had received another set back when Francis Drake and his men had sailed to the coast of Spain and destroyed many of the Spanish ships at Cadiz. Philip was particularly incensed by the spread of Protestantism in England, and he had long toyed with the idea of conquering the British Isle to bring it back into the Catholic fold. At that point they became somewhat skeptical themselves; their fleet of sixty-six ships were caught by surprise in Plymouth when the Armada appeared.
You can adjust all of your cookie settings by navigating the tabs on the left hand side. Although the war between the Spanish and the English was never formally declared, the fighting stopped and treaties were signed in 1604 as shown by the picture above. New York: Crowell Company, 1928. The fleet was under the command of the Duke of Medina-Sidonia and consisted of 130 ships carrying 2,500 guns, 8,000 seamen, and almost 20,000 soldiers. Elizabeth, in a splendid and jewelled gown, occupies the centre of the painting, flanked by two images. Elizabeth knew that this was the right way to address her army because she figured that if she, the leader, was calm, then her army would gain more confidence in themselves.
Moreover, she had covertly supported Sir Francis Drake's attacks on Spanish treasure galleons returning from the New World; in September 1580, Drake had returned from sailing around the world with a cargo of Spanish gold, worth 1. The enabler of the ever impeding rift came to Elizabeth under the guise of pleasantry when the Netherlands successfully gained their liberty from Spain in 1579 Robinson 227. The period after the defeat of the Spanish Armada was a time of intermittent conflict and battles between the two opposing sides. Queen Elizabeth I: Speech to the Troops at Tilbury Queen Elizabeth I of England Queen Elizabeth I at Tilbury. The Act of Uniformity 1558 required the population of England to attend Sunday service in an Anglican church where a new book of common prayer was read from.
To which rather than any dishonour shall grow by me, I myself will take up arms, I myself will be your general, judge, and rewarder of every one of your virtues in the field. A 10-page doggerel verse promised English readers that it was safe to eat fish, even though they had fed on corpses of Spanish sailors, infected with venereal diseases. The wars and conflicts ended and gave way to new ideas and philosophies. Over the next several days, the English continued to harass the Spanish Armada as it charged toward the English Channel. New York: Stein and Day, 1972. Elizabeth sent a force to Scotland to aid the Protestant rebels, this resulted in the Treaty of Edinburgh removing the French threat from the north. The crown also symbolises the English monarch.