Drawing on whiteboard the branches of the ambdominal aorta. Itends at about the L4 vertebra and slightly to the left by dividing into theright and left common iliac arteries. Its branches are: Left Colic. The iliohypogastric nerve suppliespart of the buttock laterally lateral cutaneous branch and theabdomen superior to the pubis anterior cutaneous branch. Superior mesenteric artery: The visceral superior mesenteric artery begins just below the truncus coeliacs. It arises from the front of the aorta, about 1. However, particularly as they get older, a bicuspid aortic valve can become calcified, which can result in varying courses of the severity of aortic stenosis or aortic regurgitation, that can appear as murmurs.
In order of distance alone the aorta from the heart. It is 2 inches long in length and travels with the pulmonary trunk in the pericardial sheath. Each common iliac artery runs inferiolateral and divides intothe external and internal iliac arteries. Between para-umbilical and subcutaneous veins. In addition to the above, the aorta also gives rise to paired inferior phrenic artery, unpaired median sacral artery, and two terminal branches. It leaves the thorax via the aortic hiatus in the diaphragm, and becomes the abdominal aorta. From the intestinal arteries small branches are given off to the lymph glands and other structures between the layers of the mesentery.
Another system divides the aorta with respect to its course and the direction of blood flow. Its possible function is to supply the oxygenated blood to the large intestine. It arisesimmediately inferior to the aortic opening of the diaphragm, betweenthe crura, and is embedded in the celiac plexus and ganglia. The celiac trunk divides into the left gastric, common hepatic and splenic arteries. Thoracic Aorta The thoracic descending aorta spans from the level of T4 to T12. This results in a weak, delayed femoral pulse which presents clinically as radio-femoral delay.
Particularly, the thoracic aorta is the part of the aorta that begins after the arch of the aorta and joins directly down to the diaphragm, the terrific muscle that divides the chest from the tummy. Sympathetic Trunks and Ganglia see figs. The hepatic artery proper ascends in the freeedge of the lesser omentum to the liver, where it divides into rightand left branches, the former of which gives off the highly variablecystic artery. The part of the descending aorta that is in the abdomen the mid section is the descending abdominal aorta. It terminates at the level of L4 by bifurcating into the left and right common iliac arteries. It transports oxgenated blood from the left ventricle of the heart to the rest of the body via arteries branching away from the aorta.
The aortic plexus of nerves is continued along theexternal iliac and femoral arteries. It gives rise to and musculophrenic arteries, and , and visceral arteries the , the and the. It further pumps the blood stream through the suprarenal glands. These pierce the muscular coat of the bowel and run downward, as straight vessels, placed at regular intervals from each other in the wall of the gut between its muscular and mucous coats, to the level of the Sphincter ani internus; here they form a series of loops around the lower end of the rectum, and communicate with the middle hemorrhoidal branches of the hypogastric, and with the inferior hemorrhoidal branches of the internal pudendal. Furthermore, the flow of blood from the abdomen and pelvis into thevertebral plexus is accentuated by any increase in intra-abdominalpressure caused by coughing or straining. Here it distributes branches to the esophagus, which anastomose with the aortic esophageal arteries; others supply the cardiac part of the stomach, anastomosing with branches of the lienal artery.
Between the aortic arch and the pulmonary trunk is a network of autonomic nerve fibers, the or aortic plexus. The bulk may cause simply no troubles. It gives off the left colic and sigmoid arteries see fig. The right is longer than the left, on account of the position of the aorta; it passes behind the inferior vena cava, the right renal vein, the head of the pancreas, and the descending part of the duodenum. It formally ends at approximately the level of vertebra L4, where it bifurcates to form the common iliac arteries. Its branches are: Right Gastric.
The aorta consists of a heterogeneous mixture of , nerves, intimal cells, endothelial cells, fibroblast-like cells, and a complex extracellular matrix. Theaccessory obturator nerve L3, 4 , when present, enters the thigh deepto the pectineus, which it supplies. The gastric, common hepatic and splenic arteries originate at this longitudinal anastomosis. The main systemic channels have widespread valveless connectionswith the valveless vertebral plexus see fig. At an early period of fetal life, when the testes or ovaries lie by the side of the vertebral column, below the kidneys, the internal spermatic or ovarian arteries are short; but with the descent of these organs into the scrotum or lesser pelvis, the arteries are gradually lengthened. Inferior mesenteric artery: The inferior mesenteric artery originates from the lower aorta.
At this level, the aorta terminates by bifurcating into the right and left common iliac arteries that supply the lower body. It has six paired branches: bronchial arteries, mediastinal arteries, esophageal arteries, pericardial arteries, superior phrenic artery, and intercostal arteries. All the oxygenated blood carried from the heart to the combination of cells tissue of the body enters the aorta, so that is why it is most beneficial artery in the body. A fifth pair, small in size, is occasionally present: they arise from the middle sacral artery. The origin and course of the first part of each artery are the same as those of the internal spermatic, but on arriving at the upper opening of the lesser pelvis the ovarian artery passes inward, between the two layers of the ovariopelvic ligament and of the broad ligament of the uterus, to be distributed to the ovary.
These two blood vessels twist around each other, causing the aorta to start out to the pulmonary trunk, but end by twisting to its right and side. Gonadal artery: The gonadal artery having sub vessels testicular artery in a male and ovarian artery in females , its main function to delivers blood to the gonad. The nervespierce the diaphragm and reach the celiac and aorticorenal ganglia fig. Abdominal aorta and major branches After crossing through the diaphragm at the aortic hiatus, the thoracic aorta is called the abdominal aorta see. It supplies the adductor muscles and gracilis, theskin of the medial side of the thigh, and the hip and knee joints. It passes downward and to the right behind the peritoneum toward the right iliac fossa, where it divides into a superior and an inferior branch; the inferior anastomoses with the end of the superior mesenteric artery, the superior with the right colic artery.