With other sociologists of his time, Lemert saw how all deviant acts are social acts, a result of the cooperation of society. Initially they sugessted that as many types of behaviour as possible should be decriminalized. This theory states that labels can be such a powerful influence that some people have little choice but to conform to social expectations. It is the societal reaction that affects the rate of delinquency. In his opening, Becker writes:.
Pressed by such a display, the subject may begin to add meaning and gravity to his deviant activities. Today's stigmas are the result not so much of ancient or religious prohibitions, but of a new demand for normalcy. The growth of the theory and its current application, both practical and theoretical, provide a solid foundation for continued popularity. Whatever, its shortcomings Tierney, 2006, pp. But in some Islamic countries, is a crime and proof of extramarital activity may lead to severe consequences for all concerned.
Our findings reveal that being stopped or arrested not only increases future delinquency but also amplifies deviant attitudes. Becker points out that people react differently to the same act depending on the social context and this influences the label that is placed on the act. Short Essay on the Labeling Theory of Crime Howard Becker propounded his Labelling theory in 1963. Researchers have long been interested in stability and changes in offending patterns between and within individuals during the life-course. His most important contribution to labeling theory, however, was Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity published in 1963. He might flee from his family and home town to a large gay center.
According to reports, he later abandoned his gay identity and began promoting an interactionist view of homosexuality. This has also been called 'deviance amplification' Sumner, 2006 , a vicious cycle where media condemnation of a new 'problem' and the societal reaction that that 'problem' - including policing reactions - serve to reinforce, reproduce and even stimulate deviant and law-breaking behaviour. However, if an incestuous affair became too obvious and public, the islanders reacted with abuse and the offenders were ostracised and often driven to suicide. The deviancy can thus be seen as legitimate for him and he can continue in it without rejecting the norm of society. Instead of using these terms as substantives which stand for persons, or even as adjectives to describe persons, they may better be used to describe the nature of the overt sexual relations, or of the stimuli to which an individual erotically responds.
Even though deterrence is not the outcome labeling theory proponents would predict, or look for, what is to say that studying the positive outcome could not lead to a new thought perspective and subsequent new approach in treating deviant behavior. When he walks on the sidewalk, parents pull their children away and say, 'Don't turn out like him. Rethinking Crime and Deviance Theory. The second critique of labeling theory is that it is still not clear whether or not labeling has the effect of increasing deviant behavior. Don't these jerks know how hard it is to get a job, place to live, etc, etc. A better strategy, he suggests, is to reject the label and live as if the oppression did not exist. Following is a study by Bernburg, Krohn, and Rivera 2006 that lends support to labeling theorist's expected outcome - the reinforcement of deviant behavior.
And, what would be effective methods to assist with a falling back in to society? Conclusions: Results suggest that warm, supportive parents can reduce the likelihood that their children will reoffend. These theories both share a simple idea: crime does not exist because certain people are bad. Labelists also believe that once the deviant status labeling exists, it is fixed. Many longitudinal studies of crime and delinquency initiated since the 1980s have produced hundreds of published papers, providing an unprecedented opportunity to address such questions. El etiquetado de la desviación. They view them as socially constructed illnesses and psychotic disorders.
In addition, an Appendix lists each longitudinal study in the volume along with essential study features, and cross-lists the studies with the reviews. Whoever could not or would not accept it as love was mistaken. What's even more interesting is that sometimes crime is not entirely the fault of the criminal, but a fault of the system. He takes an overdose of heroin that has been cut with impure chemicals and dies at the age of 21. Investigators found that deviant roles powerfully affect how we perceive those who are assigned those roles. Clearly, these studies and the dozens of others like them serve to demonstrate that labeling can have a very real and very large effect on the mentally ill.
Conversely, exclusive reaction is denying membership to the group. All gave the same account of their life situations. Unfortunately, this important aspect of rehabilitative process has, by and large, remained neglected in the present-day Indian penal system. If theorists, criminologists, sociologists, experts and future experts would come together and carefully dissect all existing theories and data, maybe they would aggregate a cluster theory that would aid in the past, present and future explanation and treatment of deviance and crime. Related Posts My main page of links to. Being Mentally Ill 2nd ed.