As you might imagine, most of these terms derive from Greek with a minority from Latin; those folks in antiquity sure knew how to be rhetorical! We shall go on to the end. For this reason, rhetoric was formalized as an educational discipline, with lessons in effectual discourse forming the very foundation of Greco-Roman learning. Rhetorical techniques are different techniques used in essays or to improve them. With procatalepsis, a speaker anticipates an opposing argument and refutes or otherwise discredits it before it's made. Shakespeare, Hamlet : an assertion seemingly opposed to common sense, but that may yet have some truth in it.
Rhetorical Devices Despite my enormous love of language and the written word, I could never really get into the arcane field of rhetoric. Starbucks weaves us directly into the cultural conditions of which it is constitutive. Wherever and whenever a is used in written texts and speech, it alters meanings of words. There a … re literally dozens of techniques, too many to mention here. If you have any corrections, additions, or comments, please. And where is he now, padre? We shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills.
So, for example, the analyst might say that the presence of feature x will condition the reception of the text in a particular way. Word Definition acatalectic having complete or full number of syllables in a poetic line accismus in rhetoric, pretending to refuse something adynaton rhetorical use of a nearly impossible situation for emphasis agnomination rhetorical use of similar-sounding words for effect alogism illogical statement anacoenosis rhetorical questioning of hearers or opponents for opinions on a matter anacoluthon moving to new topic of discussion before finishing current one anadiplosis repeating last word of clause at beginning of next clause analepsis repetition of a word or phrase for emphasis; pleonasm anaphora repetition of a word at beginning of successive phrases for emphasis anastrophe reversing or inverting word order as rhetorical device antanaclasis repetition of key word of phrase as a play on words anthorism counter-definition; redefinition of opponent's term for rhetorical effect anthypophora refuting an objection using a contrary inference anticlimax expression whose last part is decreased in effect from the prior part antimetabole figure in which words or phrases are repeated but in inverse order antimetathesis inversion of the parts of an antithesis antiphrasis use of words in a sense opposite to literal antistrophe repetition of words in reverse order antistrophon turning of opponent's own argument against them antithesis contrast of ideas by means of parallel arrangement of words or clauses antonomasia use of descriptive phrase or epithet instead of proper name aparithmesis rhetorical answer to a proposition apodosis main concluding clause in a conditional sentence apophasis saying something by stating that you will not mention it aposiopesis suddenly stopping in the middle of a speech for emphasis apostrophe addressing of a personified thing rhetorically asteism refined irony asyndeton rhetorical device of omitting conjunctions atticism expression characterized by conciseness and elegance auxesis increase in size; hyperbole or augmentation of meaning bathos appearance of the commonplace in elevated matter for rhetorical effect catastasis introductory part of speech where narrator introduces subject chiasmus contrast by parallelism in reverse order climax gradual increase in force of rhetorical expressions or drama of a performance consecution logical sequence or progression of an argument diacope rhetorical separation of a compound word by a third word; tmesis diallage device in which many arguments brought upon one point diallelus circular argument dialogism rhetorical discussion in form of an imaginary dialogue diaporesis rhetorical expression of uncertainty of which of two options to adopt diasyrm rhetorical device of condemning through faint praise diatyposis rhetorically vivid and clear description of a subject dicaeology defending oneself in argument by claiming justification dilemma in rhetoric, forcing a choice between two equally unfavourable choices dilogy intentional ambiguousness dinumeration numbering of rhetorical points one by one ecbole digression echolalia echo-like repetition of another's words echopraxia echo-like repetition of another's actions ecphasis explicit declaration or interpretation ecphonesis rhetorical exclamation ecphrasis plain interpretation of a thing ekphrasis description of a work of art as rhetorical exercise enantiosis ironic expression of idea by refuting its contrary enthymeme rhetorical suppression or omission of a premise epanadiplosis sentence which begins and ends with same word epanalepsis repetition epanaphora repetition of same word at beginning of multiple phrases or sentences epanastrophe device where end of one sentence is repeated as beginning of next epanodos recapitulation of chief points in a discourse after digression epanorthosis retraction of statement in order to intensify it epexegesis addition of words to make the sense more clear epibole device of beginning several clauses with same word epilogue rhetorical conclusion or summary epiphonema exclamation, finishing phrase or reflection epiphora rhetorical repetition of a word at the end of several sentences epiplexis persuasion through stylized but severe criticism of opponent epiploce use of multiple entwined points in succession in an argument epistrophe ending of successive clauses with the same word epitrope rhetorical but ironic granting of permission to an opponent to do something epizeuxis immediate repetition of a word for emphasis erotesis rhetorical questioning ethopoeia delineation of the character of someone or something euphemism rhetorical use of a pleasant or favourable form in place of a harsh one exergasia remaining on one point of argument while gradually fleshing it out gemination doubling of a consonant sound; in rhetoric, repetition of a word or phrase hendiadys expression of adjective and noun as two adjectives heterosis use of one form of a noun or pronoun in place of another for rhetorical effect homeoteleuton the use or occurrence of similar word endings homoeoptoton use of series of words sharing the same verb or noun inflections hypallage figure in which relations between words are changed hyperbaton rhetorical device in which word order is reversed hyperbole impression by extravagant exaggeration hypercatalectic having an extra syllable on the end of a line of verse hypobole anticipating and refuting objections to an argument hypophora statement of an opponent's probable but as yet unstated objection hypostrophe return to primary argument after digression hypotyposis vivid description of a scene hysteron proteron in rhetoric, putting first what normally comes last ischiorrhogic of an iambic line, having spondees in the second, fourth or sixth place lemma preliminary proposition, theme, argument or headword litotes understatement by affirming using negation of the contrary macrology much talk with little to say; redundancy; pleonasm meiosis understatement of size or importance for rhetorical effect merism rhetorical device of contrasting two parts of a whole mesozeugma placement of a word referring to two different clauses between them metabasis transition; transfer; in rhetoric, movement from one topic to another metalepsis metonymy of a double or indirect kind metaphor figurative transfer of qualities from one object or event to another metaphrase turning of prose into verse or vice versa metastasis removal from one place to another; rapid transition in argument metonymy figurative use of word to name an attribute of its subject mimesis rhetorical imitation of another's words or mannerisms mycterism sneering; rhetorical sarcasm or irony noema stating something obscurely, forcing listeners to work it out oxymoron figure of speech combining contradictory terms palillogy repetition of a word or word or phrase parabola rhetorical use of simile or metaphor paradiastole description of an unfavourable quality through a favourable synonym paradigma rhetorical comparison by resemblance to another thing paraenesis rhetorical expression of advice or warning paragram play on words in which letters are changed paralipsis fixing attention on subject by pretending to neglect it paranomasia rhetorical art of punning parathesis apposition; compounding of words without change parecbasis rhetorical digression or deviation from expected topic paregmenon repetition of a word or its cognates in a series of words parembole insertion of something related to the subject into a phrase paremptosis insertion of something related to the subject into a phrase parison even balance of elements in a sentence paroemia proverb or adage used in argumentation paromoion starting statement with several words starting with the same letter paromologia partial admission of opponent's argument to strengthen one's final position parrhesia asking forgiveness in advance for frank or bold speech pathopoeia excitation of passion by rhetoric or poetry periergia use of elevated style to discuss a trivial matter periphrasis circumlocution; round-about expression perissology verbiage; pleonasm pleonasm redundancy; use of more words than necessary ploce repetition of word in more expressive sense for emphasis polyptoton repetition of word in same sentence with multiple inflectional endings polysyndeton rhetorical device of repeating conjunction for emphasis preterition passing over or omission; drawing attention to a thing by claiming to omit it procatalepsis anticipating and answering an opponent's objections prolepsis anticipation; device where objections are anticipated pronomination description of a thing by its qualities rather than its proper name prosopopoeia personification; representation of absent person as speaking protasis first clause in a conditional expression; introductory part of a play prothysteron putting last what normally comes first in an expression or argument protozeugma zeugma in which word referring to two clauses is placed before both of them schesis deriding opponent's argument by referring to his way of thought simile comparison of two things sorites string of statements where end of one is subject of next superjection exaggeration; hyperbole syllepsis figure where word related to two others differently syllogism argument in which two premises lead to a logical conclusion symploce repetition of word at start of one and end of next clause synchoresis concession made for the sake of more effective retort synchysis confusion of meaning due to unusual arrangement syncrisis comparison of diverse or contradictory things syndeton phrase whose parts are joined by a conjunction synecdoche part used to refer to whole or vice versa synoeciosis rhetorical figure of coupling opposites tapinosis use of degrading or diminutive diction regarding a topic tmesis separation of word into parts by an intervening word trope any figure of speech; figurative language tuism apostrophe; reference to or regard to a second person zeugma use of a word to modify two or more words in different ways I hope you have found this site to be useful. Just think of those times when you ask someone a very simple question and you get bombarded with an over elaborate answer. Cake, drug, kitchen, squabble, ghost, blanket, graze, elbow, and crank were all only ever used as nouns before he got hold of them. Instructors have used rhetorical modes to teach writing or public speaking since ancient Greek times over two thousand years ago, perhaps longer. Paragraph Level Paragraph-level rhetorical techniques are especially important in essays, where they help to signal the structure of the argument.
And, to paraphrase Charles Dickens, you can go home in floods of tears and a sedan-chair. The pairs of words at the beginning and ending of each sentence give the impression that the logic invoked is unassailable and perfectly assembled. What is the strategy for this particular audience? Churchill : substitution of one word for another which it suggests. This highly interpretive aspect of rhetorical analysis requires the analyst to address the effects of the different identified textual elements on the perception of the person experiencing the text. In 1935, Italy invaded Ethiopia -- without warning. In that respect, it is like the practical criticism that the New Critics and the Chicago School indulge in.
This can be particularly effective in communicating sarcasm as well. Cicero, In Catilinam : use of superfluous or redundant words, often enriching the thought. A … dapt to your audience: How can you better connect your material to your audience? A question that's not meant to be answered although it's asked. Second, we need to show how it works. Second, it gives speech a sense of order and clarity. In this sentence, the word ways is repeated at the end of two successive phrases, picked up again at the beginning of the next phrase, and then repeated as part of the word always.
Links to this page may be made without permission. A tool used in the course of rhetoric, employing specific sentence structure, sounds, and imagery to attain a desired response. Over time, 'rhetoricians,' or students and practitioners specifically of the art of rhetoric, coined and codified a wide assortment of special techniques. By developing a basic knowledge of rhetorical devices, you can improve your ability to process and convey information while also strengthening your persuasive skills. Cicero, In Catilinam : expression of something which is contrary to the intended meaning; the words say one thing but mean another. The way in which the fundamentals, as of an artistic work, are handled. Antiphrasis refers to a statement whose actual meaning is the opposite of the literal meaning of the words within it.
Devices in this category seek to convince and persuade via logic and reason, and will usually make use of statistics, cited facts, and statements by authorities to make their point and persuade the listener. Here are some of the more common types of rhetorical writing - a complete list is linked below:. So, this is a rhetoric question. In short, Starbucks draws together the tripartite relationships among place, body and subjectivity. Cicero on Octavian : use of similar sounding words; often etymological word-play.
George Bernard Shaw : surprise or unexpected ending of a phrase or series. Ross, in turn, added some additional examples. Nevertheless, the difference between rhetorical devices and figures of speech is so minute that both share many features. Never mind the truth -- pursue probability through thick and thin in every kind of speech; the whole secret of the art of speaking lies in consistent adherence to this principle. This cultivation of persuasion as an art form began in the streets of ancient Greece and Rome. Anaphora - the repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of several successive clauses, phrases, or lines. It can also mean skill in effective speaking or writing.
Example 3 The counterargument is the most important rhetorical device for college-level essays. It refers to a writer or speaker using a number of different and successive words or phrases that all effectively mean the same thing, purely to emphasise the point. Anastrophe is a form of hyperbaton. Just listen to George W. A rhetorical situation is a rhetorical event consisting of an exigence issue , an audience, and a set of constraints, which can be represented graphically by the rhetorical situation triangle. Do you know why hypophora is useful? Being able to speak or write effectively makes you a better writer or speaker. Irony - saying one thing but meaning another; the expression of something contrary to the intended meaning.
These rhetorical devices base their appeal in emotion. It can be used to dismiss or diminish a debate opponent's argument. It's useful because it stimulates listener interest and creates a clear transition point in the speech. Examples of Rhetorical Devices: Metaphor A metaphor is a type of 'figurative' rhetorical device, meaning it uses comparison or symbolism to express certain shared characteristics. By making the new concept appear to be linked to or a type of the old and familiar concept, the person using the metaphor hopes to help the audience understand the new concept.