The personal union of all the Iberian kingdoms under a single ruler had long been an aim of Spanish statecraft. Charles' support allowed Clement to survive as pope and led to the , which would divide for nearly 40 years. Mainly because the Holy Roman Empire didn't work very well. The crown of Castile brought with it the two recently conquered kingdoms of Navarre and Granada, together with the new colonies in America and scattered possessions in northern Africa. The towns were bowed and could be reminded of what they had done if ever they opposed Charles, and the nobles had fought their way to a closer relationship with him. His first important service to the empire was to affect the successful issue of the Diet of Worms, exhibiting his entire independence and maturity. Charles now believed the princes to be sufficiently humbled to permit him to reorganize the empire with their help at a Diet at , as he had previously reorganized and the.
As a result, he usually ate alone. He kept a firmer hold on the government of the , but established a permanent regency for them also 1522 , selecting for this function two able and thoroughly loyal : first till 1530 , the faithful Margaret, and next his sister Maria of , who held the regency till Charles himself abdicated. The feverish phrases of religious exaltation due to broken health and unnatural retirement cannot balance the deliberate humanity and honour of wholesome manhood. And when later the French overran Naples, and all but deprived him of his hold on Italy, he had to instruct his generals that they must shift for themselves. Francis was captured near Pavia and was forced to conclude a very unfavorable peace Madrid, 1525. Led by , the was able to turn the tide of the to Charles' advantage, and by the end of Charles' reign, they had reconquered almost all the territories ceded to the English in 1360. At the last moment he spoiled his own work by granting the Netherlands to Philip.
But this soon became a dead letter, and the Netherlands were really severed from the Empire, save for the nominal feudal tie in the case of some provinces. When his paternal grandfather, the emperor Maximilian I, died in 1518, the elective imperial crown as well as the Hapsburg patrimonial lands Austria came within Charles's reach, and he again acted strongly. Charles's maternal grandfather, Ferdinand of Aragon, who had long tried to block a Spanish-Hapsburg union, favored the succession of Charles's younger brother, Ferdinand, to the Spanish crown. Health Charles suffered from an enlarged lower jaw, a deformity that became considerably worse in later Habsburg generations, giving rise to the term Habsburg jaw. Charles himself spent his last days in Spain in a house close to a monastery, with a household some fifty strong.
The two chief stages of Lutheran growth naturally corresponded with the periods, each of nine years, when Charles was absent. Soon resistance to the Emperor arose because of heavy taxation to support foreign wars in which Castilians had little interest, and because Charles tended to select Flemings for high offices in Spain and America, ignoring Castilian candidates. Since the late 15th century France had tried to get a foothold in either Naples or Milan which had been conquered by Francis I in 1515 ; later it attacked Alsace as well. It was September, 1556, before he could leave for his long-chosen place of retirement in , accompanied by his two sisters, the of the French king, and Maria of. To pay for the defense of the kingdom, Charles raised taxes. Aragon also previously controlled the Duchy of Milan, but a year before Charles ascended to the throne, it was annexed by France after the Battle of Marignano in 1515.
In 1551, however, a compromise was reached that established Charles's son Philip, rather than Maximilian, as the legal successor of Ferdinand. The hard-won victories of Charles V had been lost through the venality of his successors. In that year his grandfather Ferdinand died, leaving him the kingdom of Aragon and its Italian possessions. Main military operations lasted until 1524, when Hondarribia surrendered to Charles's forces, but frequent cross-border clashes in the western Pyrenees only stopped in 1528 Treaties of Madrid and Cambrai. Yet his industry was broken by fits of indolence, which were probably due to health. Force was hopeless save in the absence of war with France and the Turk, and of papal hostility in Italian territorial politics. In his remaining years Charles made a series of abdications that left the Hapsburg dominions divided between Austria and Spain.
Containing over 1,200 volumes, it was symbolic of the authority and magnificence of the royal person, but also of his concern with government for the. Maps and mechanical inventions greatly interested him, and in later life he became fond of reading. Charles delegated increasing responsibility for Germany to his brother Ferdinand while he concentrated on problems elsewhere. His last formal suspensive measure was that of Spires Speyer in 1544, when he was marching against Francis. These fears were exacerbated by the time it took Charles to put aside his other business and travel to Spain for the very first time: eighteen months. Charles escaped, but abandoned his plan for the reorganization of the imperial government. The Castilians, however, jealously confined it to the city of Seville, artificially fostering the indolence of the colonists to maintain the agricultural and manufacturing monopoly of Castile, and by extreme protective measures forcing them to live on smuggled goods from other countries.
Some German princes or noblemen accompanied him in his military campaigns against France or the Ottomans, and the bulk of his army was generally composed of German troops, especially the Imperial Landsknechte. Turning on the Protestant princes of Germany, Charles split their ranks by winning over of Saxony and others, attacked the Schmalkaldic League in 1546, defeated 1547 of Saxony at Mühlberg, and imprisoned. Doctors were able to treat the wound but told him that if it ever dried up, he would die within 15 days. The struggle with France was centred in Italy: by 1535 Spain had largely established control, but French hostility was never overcome. This stands in contrast with the attitude of his son Philip who only visited the Low Countries once. After bribing the , he was chosen Holy Roman emperor in succession to his grandfather, and in 1520 he departed for Germany.
Shortly after the final of the Diet of Augsburg, in 1555, Charles convened the Estates of the , and in their presence transferred the government to Philip. He was also elected to succeed his Habsburg grandfather, Maximilian I, as Holy Roman Emperor, a title held by the Habsburgs since 1440. In the Netherland provinces again the tie was almost purely personal; there existed only the rudiments of a central administration and a common representative system, while the county of Burgundy had a history apart. Free is nice, but if you can afford to pay a little every month, it really helps us to continue producing this content. His ideal was shattered, but it was a great ideal, and the patience, the moderation, even at times the adroitness with which he had striven towards it, proved him to be no bigot.
In Germany, Charles, who saw himself as the defender of the , nevertheless recognized the need for reform, but other commitments prevented him following a consistent policy, and Lutheranism expanded. Then in 1519 when his grandfather Maximilian I died, Charles inherited the Hapsburg lands in Austria and was elected Holy Roman emperor. Société politique, noblesse et couronne sous Jean le Bon et Charles V in French. By 1550 the emperor's health began to fail, and he succumbed increasingly to paralyzing bouts of depression. It is important to note, though, that other states of the Empire chose to support him in his war, and that he had the constant support of his brother, in spite of their strained personal relationship.
It was put down at the battle of Villalar; Juan de and other leaders were executed. He takes his place indeed among authors, for he dictated the commentaries on his own career. Charles had abundance of good sense, but little creative genius, and he was by nature conservative. Charles faced another rebellion which occurred at the same time as the Comunero Revolt, in a smaller and less financially important region of Spain. He did, indeed, demand the duchy of Burgundy, because he believed this to have been unrighteously stolen by from his grandmother when a helpless girl. He abdicated as ruler of the Spanish Empire in January 1556, with no fanfare, and gave these possessions to Philip.